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March 2022 – Vol. 105, No. 1


Tilapia is a cheap source of protein, however, diseases caused by viruses such as the Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) can affect the culture of this fish. Logronio et al. (2022) studied the genetic diversity of TiLV detected in the country based on sequencing data. Identification of the three phylogenetic groups of the virus has significant implications for tilapia disease diagnostics, vaccine development, and selective breeding of disease resistant tilapia stocks.

Concentrations of Digestible, Metabolizable, and Net Energy in Coconut Co-products Fed to Growing Pigs
Ronilo O. De Castro, Satoshi Ohkura, Akemi Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Morita, Analyn P. Padua, and Rommel C. Sulabo
Received: January 16, 2019/ Revised: October 19, 2021/ Accepted: February 14, 2022

This experiment was conducted to determine the concentration of digestible (DE), metabolizable (ME), and net energy (NE), and to develop prediction equations for DE and ME in coconut co-products (CCP) fed to growing pigs. The CCP used were copra meal (CM), protein enriched copra meal (PECM), and white copra (WC) obtained from the different sources in the Philippines. Twenty-two growing barrows (PIC L337 × C24; initial BW 18.74 ± 0.91 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages that allowed for a total but separated collection of feces and urine. Pigs were arranged in a replicated 11 × 3 Youden square design with 11 dietary treatments at three periods each. A basal diet that contained 96.26% corn, and ten additional diets consisting of 70% basal diet and 30% CCP were formulated. All diets have the same proportion of corn and other ingredients. Fecal, urine, diet, and CCP samples were analyzed for gross energy (GE) using bomb calorimetry. The DE and ME concentrations of CCP diets and ingredients were calculated. The NE of diets and ingredients were estimated using the prediction equation (NE = 0.870 × ME – 442). The DE, ME, and NE concentrations differed (P < 0.001) among CCP and ranged from 1,843 to 3,284, 1,666 to 3,211, and 1,008 to 2,352 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The DE (3,193 kcal/kg DM), ME (3,074 kcal/kg DM), and NE (1,774 kcal/kg DM) concentrations of CM was greater (P < 0.001) than PECM (1,859, 1,717, and 1,052 kcal/kg DM, respectively) but with similar DE (2,657 kcal/kg DM), ME (2,562 kcal/kg DM), and NE (1,787 kcal/kg DM) of WC. However, the DE, ME, and NE of WC was greater (P < 0.001) than PECM. A positive correlation (r ≥ 0.72; P < 0.05) was observed between the DE and ME and acid detergent fiber (ADF) in 8 CCP (excluding WC samples). The DE and ME concentrations in CCP may be predicted using the following equations: 1) DE = -715.30 + 101.42 × % ADF (R2 = 0.52, RMSE = 403.85, P = 0.04); and 2) ME = -983.16 + 106.13 × % ADF (R2 = 0.51, RMSE = 427.42, P = 0.04). In conclusion, DE and ME concentrations differ among CCP sources fed to growing pigs. Moreover, DE and ME values in CCP can be predicted using ADF as independent variable.

Effects of Methyl Salicylate (MeSA) on the Physiology and Biochemical Characteristics of Rice Under Salinity Stress at Seedling Stage
Pham Thi Thu Ha, Truong Minh Tuan, Pham Thi Thu Hien, Tran Thi My Hiep, and Chau Thi Da
Received: June 28, 2021/ Revised: December 14, 2021/ Accepted: January 15, 2022

Salt stress negatively affects crop survival, growth, development, and yield. Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA) which is a volatile organic compound that is responsible for inducing defense mechanisms in plants and also has a protective role in stress sensitivity. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of different concentrations of methyl salicylate (MeSA) on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of two rice varieties GRIS4 (G1) and GRIS5 (G2) under salt stress at the seedling stage. Five hundred seeds of each variety were treated with different doses of MeSA (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) and screening various salinity levels (0, 6, 8, 12, 15, and 17 dS m-1) at the seedling stage (21 days old). The different traits such as survival rates, morphological characteristics including plant height and root and length, the biomass of fresh and dry weights of the shoots and roots, and biochemical parameters (chlorophyll a and b, proline, and phenolic and flavonoid content) were measured. Treatment 0.1 mM MeSA had significantly higher root length and dry weight under 8 dS m-1, 6 dS m-1, higher chlorophyll and phenolic content under 17 dS m-1 for G1, whereas the 0.1 mM MeSA-treated plants had significantly higher root length under 15 dS m-1 and root fresh weight under 12 dS m-1 for G2 compared to control plants. The 0.5 mM MeSA-treated plants had significantly higher seedling length, survival rate, root fresh weight, and shoot fresh weight under 8 dS m-1, 6 dS m-1 then also had higher proline and flavonoid content under 17 dS m-1 for G1, while G2 had higher shoot dry weight under 17 dS m-1, higher root fresh weight under 8 dS m-1, higher proline content under15 dS m-1, and higher phenolic and flavonoid contents under 12 dS m-1 compared to control plants. Treatment 1.0 mM MeSA had higher survival rate under 6 dS m-1, seedling length under 15 dS m-1, shoot fresh weight under 6 dS m-1, root dry weight under 8 dS m-1, chlorophyll a under 15 dS m-1, and chlorophyll b under 8 dS m-1 compared to control plants. These results showed that positive effects induced by MeSA increased some physiological and biochemical traits of rice under salt stress at the seedling stage.

Modeling the Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter Accumulation from Leaf Litterfall as Affected by Tillage Practices in Mango Orchard
Fernan T. Fiegalan, Cherry L. Ringor, and Tolentino B. Moya
Received: November 13, 2020/ Revised: January 25, 2022/ Accepted: January 27, 2022

This study was undertaken to determine long-term soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation dynamics from added mango leaf litter (MLL) into tilled (MT) and non-tilled soil (MnT) through integrated field experiment (bio-physico-chemical edaphic properties) and system dynamics modeling. Field data shows that the coarse (Lf) and fine (Fn) fractions of SOM have no significant difference (p > 0.05) between MT and MnT during the dry season. In contrast, there is a significant difference (p < 0.01) in the Fn fraction between MT and MnT during the wet season. The total N, available P, exchangeable K, as well as the collembola, bacteria, and fungi in the soil were also assessed. Of these parameters, the available P and exchangeable K have a significant difference between the MnT and MT during the dry season. In comparison, the total N and collembola significantly differed during the wet season. The results of the field experiment were used in the parametrization to build the SOM accumulation model. The 20-year simulation showed that the incorporation of MLL into the soil through tillage increased SOM from 3.09% to 3.13%, with an average of 2.78 ± 0.018%. In the non-tilled orchard, SOM also increased from 3.09% to 4.23%, with an average of 3.59 ± 0.035%. This SOM level can sustain the fertility and productivity of the mango agroecosystem. The increase in SOM is accounted for by the coarse fraction both in tilled and non-tilled plots. Given the foregoing, with minimum tillage, mango orchards can be developed into crop-based systems.

Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Rhizofungus on the Growth of Hairy Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.f. var. citratum Back.)
Nuntavun Riddech, Tiptida Kidtook, Natthawat Sritongon, and Jindarat Ekprasert
Received: November 26, 2020/ Revised: December 17, 2021/ Accepted: February 15, 2022

In this study, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) were isolated from soil adhered to the roots of herbs. PGPR and PGPF isolates were selected for producing microbial inoculant as a starter culture for bio-fertilizer production. The screening of PGPR and PGPF was performed using the spread plate technique on the selected medium. Total plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPM) were composed of 72 isolates, nitrogen-fixing microorganisms: 39 isolates, phosphate-solubilizing: 11 isolates, and potassium-solubilizing: 22 isolates. Two bacterial isolates, S-K7-2 and S-P7-1, had the highest plant growth promoting abilities, and a fungus isolate, Di-K7-2, was able to produce the greatest amount of IAA, which was 45.17 μg IAA equivalent/ml. The isolates were tested on hairy basil seed germination. Treatment using microbial cell dissolved in sterile distilled water had the greatest potential for stimulating the growth of seed and presented 145.26% of GI, followed by 82.87% where the treatment was with IAA standard. The study of the effect of PGPR and PGPF on hairy basil growth found that the highest biomass was shown in treatment 3, peat supplemented bacteria (S-K7-2, S-P7-1), which indicated that rhizobacteria immobilized on peat was able to enhance the growth of hairy basil and had better potential for promoting plant development compared with chemical fertilizer treatment.

Morpho-Physiological Responses of Wheat to Silicon and Bio-Fertilizer under Water-Deficit Conditions
Mehrdad Arab-Aval and Hamid Reza Ganjali
Received: May 20, 2021/ Revised: December 7, 2021/ Accepted: January 15, 2022

Recently, the use of silicon and bio-fertilizer has become important worldwide to improve the physicochemical characteristics of soil. Thus, they are used as an alternative approach to cope with the water-deficit stress on wheat plant. In this regard, a split-plot factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted during 2017 and 2018 at Sistan and Baluchestan Research Station, Iran. In the present study, treatments included water-deficit stress (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan) as the main plot, as well as the application of silicic acid (Si) foliar nutrition (0, 1, and 1.5 mM) and Nitro-Kara bio-fertilizer as sub-plots. The results represented the significant interaction effects of irrigation regimes, bio-fertilizer, and Si on 1000-grain weight and panicle number. In addition, the co-application of Nitro-Kara and Si fertilizers (1 mM) under irrigation after 120 mm evaporation led to the highest grain per panicle (44 number), which reflected a 21.36% increase compared to the control. The greatest 1000-grain weight (39.66 g) was obtained by inoculating seed with Nitro-Kara and without to apply Si fertilizer under 120 mm irrigation treatment in the first year. Further, inoculation under moderate stress (120 mm) in the second year demonstrated the highest grain yield (5,256.3 kg ha-1). Furthermore, a high chlorophyll index (57.6) was achieved when consuming 1.5 mM Si fertilizer and without Nitro Kara under 120 mm irrigation regime during the first year, which had a 20.2% enhancement compared to the control treatment. Under low irrigation conditions, the use of Nitro-Kara bio-fertilizer and Si fertilizer resulted generally in improving physiological parameters and increasing the growth and yield indices of wheat.

Co-application of Phosphorus and Sulphur Improve Yield, Quality, and Nutrients Uptake in Nicotiana tabaccum L.
Aftab Alam, Muhammad Tariq, Ikram Ul Haq, Jawad Ali, Muhammad Adnan, Shah Fahad, Manzoor Ahmad, Muhammad Romman, Muhammad Hamzah Saleem, Shakeel Ahmad, Farhana Gul, Durrishahwar, Fazli Subhan, Fazli Wahid, Inyat-ur-Rahman, and Ghulam Yasin

Received: November 28, 2020/ Revised: December 23, 2021/ Accepted: February 14, 2022

A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the interactive effect of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg P2O5 ha-1) and sulfur (0, 15, 30, and 45 kg ha-1) on yield, quality, and uptake of nutrients by tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L.). The experiment was organized in a two-factorial randomized complete block design with three replications at Tobacco Research Station, Mardan, Pakistan in 2017-2018. Application of 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 improved tobacco leaf area (24.2%), green leaf weight (44.5%), cured leaf weight (44.7%), grade index (18.3%), nicotine (35.8%), sugar (12%), and P (24.5%) contents but decreased S content (35.3%) over control phosphorus plots. Similarly, application of 45 kg S ha-1 optimized leaf area (13.6%), grade index (12%), nicotine (15%), P (5.9%), and S (96%) contents over control sulfur plots. Interactively, P application antagonized leaf S content. However, it did not show any adverse effect on other agronomic and quality parameter. Both P and S application decrease leaf chloride content by 43.5% and 21.4%, respectively. Thus, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 along with 45 kg S ha-1 is recommended for obtaining optimum yield of good quality tobacco crop.

Determining Some Quality Properties of Oat Genotypes Collected from the Middle and West Black Sea Region
Zeki Mut, Hasan Akay, Özge Doğanay Erbaş Köse, and İsmail SEZER
Received: September 3, 2020/ Revised: October 15, 2021/ Accepted: February 15, 2022

Healthy foodstuffs, including functional foods, are the key component of a healthy and prosperous life. Oat grains are rich in protein, soluble dietary fiber, β-glucan, starch, oil, some vitamins and minerals, and thus accepted as a healthy foodstuff. This study was conducted to determine physical and chemical quality traits of many different oat landraces/cultivars. In this study, 251 local oat genotypes, collected from 10 provinces of Western and Middle Black Sea Regions of Turkey and four standard oat cultivars were grown over the experimental fields of the Agricultural Application and Research Center at Samsun Ondokuz Mayıs University for two years in an augmented experimental design. As a result of the research, the screenings percentage >2 mm ranged from 69.81 to 95.80%, thousand grain weight from 18.55 to 38.41 g, protein content from 8.82 to 14.81%, starch content from 33.15 to 51.32, β-glucan content from 2.44 to 3.93%, acid detergent fibre value from 18.1 to 18.95%, and neutral detergent fibre value from 27.83 to 36.66%. Also, the local oat genotypes exhibited significant variations in fat content (3.70–7.91%), linoleic acid content (31.89–38.37%), oleic acid content (35.03–44.77%), palmitic acid content (18.26–22.87%), and stearic acid content (1.50–1.96%). According to the biplot, it was determined that the investigated quality traits differed according to the genotypes collected from the provinces. Also, these results can be used for selection of precious pure lines and improvement of new varieties for oat breeding programs.

Effect of Workers Density on Insect Pest Incidence and Colony Development of Bumblebees, Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
Marium Fatima, Asim Gulzar, Munir Ahmad, Farid Asif Sahen, Shia Ulla, Muhammad Tariq, and Muhammad AshFaq
Received: April 19, 2019/ Revised: August 12, 2021/ Accepted: December 30, 2021

Insect pollination improves essential nutrients and qualities of pollinating plants. Approximately 90% of flowering plants and 35% of crops require insect pollination. Bees play a vital role in pollination in natural and agricultural systems. Managed bees have extensively been used for pollination. Unfortunately, the native bee population has been waning globally. Commercial bee-rearing experiences different rearing problems i.e. food, environment, and spatial conditions within colonies. In this research, the impact of different densities of workers within colonies of Bombus terrestris L. was observed on colony development and pest incidence. Different worker densities i.e. 60-70, 80-90,110-120 and 140-150, respectively, were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions. The results indicated that emergence of workers was higher in less dense colonies (60-70 workers) as compared with highly dense colonies (140-150 workers). Maximum drone emergence was observed in colonies having 80-90 workers as compared with highly denser colonies. The numbers of young queens were the highest in denser colonies. Mortality percentage of bumblebees and insect pest incidence were also higher in denser colonies. Therefore, the colony with 80-90 workers can be used as an indicator for bumblebee-rearing on a commercial scale in the laboratory.

Contributions of Agricultural Subsidies to Increase Producer Income in Cotton and Milk Productions: A Case Study of Hatay Province-Turkey
Ahmet Duran Çelik
Received: March 1, 2021/ Revised: November 17, 2021/ Accepted: January 13, 2022

Agricultural production is subsidized at different levels depending on the country’s development status. The budget that was allocated for agricultural subsidies in Turkey in 2020 was around 22 billion TL (Turkish Lira) which was equal to 3.14 billion USD. In this study, the contribution of agricultural subsidies to product income and gross profit value was examined specifically on cotton as crop production and dairy cattle as animal production. According to the research results, agricultural subsidies increased production value by 30.7% in cotton and 4% in milk income. The increased rates also significantly increased the gross profit values of the products. The results also indicate that enterprises sustain their existence with the income from subsidies, and that the income from production barely covers operating costs. It is necessary to allocate a sufficient budget for agricultural subsidies in order to secure Turkey’s agricultural sustainability, improve producers’ income, and provide affordable food supplies for consumers by decreasing production costs.


Phylogenetic Analysis of Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) Isolates from the Philippines Based on Partial Genome Segment 3 Sequences
Dan Joseph C. Logronio, Joselito R. Somga, Maria Rowena R. Romana-Eguia, Sonia Somga, Demy Catedral, and Gonzalo Coloma Jr.
Received: March 9, 2021/ Revised: January 17, 2022/ Accepted: January 18, 2022

This study aimed to expand current knowledge on TiLV genetic diversity by sequence analysis of a portion of genome segment 3 of TiLV detected from the Philippines. This includes a recently deposited sequence in GenBank (Accession No. LC504279) and six new sequences from cases of infection reported from 2017 to 2020. Phylogenetic analysis of 179 bp fragment of segment 3 showed that the seven TiLV isolates from the Philippines can be divided into three phylogenetic groups. When comparing all sequences, unique nucleotide substitutions and amino acids were noted among these groups. Variation in mortality rates in naturally infected samples was also observed; however, poor environmental conditions during the disease outbreak may also contribute to the mortalities. These suggest the presence of at least three phylogenetic groups of TiLV in the Philippines which has significant implications for the future development of a vaccine, diagnostic kits, and genetic selection programs.

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